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SPECIES HEIGHT GROWTH RATE COLD HARDINESS WATER NEEDS ALKALINITY TOLERANCE ELEVATION Size


CONIFER:
Height: up to 80 feet, Growth Rate: Moderate, Cold Hardiness: Excellent, Water Needs: Moderate, Alkalinity Tolerance: Low-Moderate, Elevation: 5000- 9000 Small
Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies concolor
Check the individual species descriptions on the seedling list for more information on each species. Shrub package 1 contains shrub species that grow in this forest
Suggested Uses: reforestation, wildlife plantings.

PINON/JUNIPER up to 40 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate-High 3500- 8500 Small
Pinus edulis/Juniperus scopulorum etc. Pinon and Rocky Mountain Juniper
Pest Problems: various
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, reforestation

PONDEROSA PINE varies Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 8500 Small
Pinus ponderosa, Ponderosa pine
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation, wildlife plantings

RIPARIAN varies Fast Good-Excellent Moderate-High Moderate 5000- 8500 Small
Populus angustifolia, Alnus tenufolia, etc. For the cooler higher elevation riparian areas. Narrowleaf cottonwood, Redosier dogwood, Thinleaf alder, and Bluestem willow.
Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, erosion control, and riparian restoration.

RIPARIAN varies Fast Good-Excellent Moderate-High Moderate 3500- 7500 Small
Populus deltoides, Amorpha fruticosa, etc. For riparian areas between 3500 and 7500 feet. Rio Grande Cottonwood, False indigo bush, and Gooddling's willow. Suggested Uses: streambank stabilization, wildlife plantings, riparian restoration

SHRUBS varies Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000 Small
Quercus gambeli, Ribes cereum, Rhus trilobata Skunkbush sumac, Wax Currant and Gambel oak.
This species occur in the areas with Pinon/Juniper, Ponderosa pine and dry mixed conifer.
Pest Problems: none serious
Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, erosion control, reclamation, windbreaks

SHRUBS varies Moderate-Fast Good Low Moderate-High 3000- 7500 Small
Atriplex canescens, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, etc. Shrubs that are low water and drought tolerant. Winterfat, Four-wing saltbush, Chamisa (rubber rabbitbrush), and Little leaf sumac.
Pest Problems: none serious
Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and windbreaks.

AFGHANISTAN PINE 60 feet Fast Poor Moderate Moderate 3000- 5500 Small
Pinus eldarica A medium-sized tree native to southwest Asia. It forms a dense conical crown. An extensive root system gives this tree the ability to withstand drought. Plantings are best in southern New Mexico. It has a crown width of between 30 and 40 feet.
The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5.
Pest Problems: Nantucket pine tip moth, Ips bark beetle, and spider mites.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks.

APACHE PLUME 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 5000- 8000 Small
Fallugia paradoxa This native shrub occurs along the sides of dry washes and hillsides. The rose-like white flowers are showy in the early summer with feathery clusters of plume-like fruit in the fall and winter. Provides nesting sites and material for birds. Has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 6 feet.
Pest Problems: none serious.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, and wildlife plantings.

ARIZONA CYPRESS 40-60 feet Fast Fair Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000 Small
Cupressus arizonica This native evergreen tree has a conical crown. It survives well in shallow, alkaline soils. It is a low maintenance tree once established. It is an excellent choice for windbreak plantings. Has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.1 to 7.9.
It is shade tolerant. Crown width averages 20 feet.
Pest Problems: western cedar borer, cypress bark beetle, and spider mites.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, energy conservation plantings.

ARIZONA ROSEWOOD 10-18 feet Slow-Moderate Fair Low High 3000- 5000 Small
Vauquelinia californica A native to SW New Mexico this rare evergreen species has an upright rigid shape and is found on dry, rocky hillsides and canyons. It produces clusters of white flowers in June. It is shade intolerant and cold hardy to 15 degree Fahrenheit and very heat tolerant so it is suited for the southern part of New Mexico. Attracts bees, butterflies, and birds. It has a width of 10 to 15 feet.
The optimum soil pH is 6.1 to 9.0.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control and wildlife.

ARIZONA SYCAMORE 50-80 feet Fast Fair Moderate Moderate 4500- 6000 Small
Platanus wrightii This attractive native tree will grow best in southern New Mexico riparian areas and was once abundant in southwest New Mexico but appears to be less common today. The bark is shaggy and white/ green. The leaves are large and maple-like in shape. It is fast growing and has a pleasing fragrance after a rain. The crown width averages 35 feet. It has moderate calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 7.5.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: soil stabilization, riparian restoration, and wildlife plantings.

ARIZONA WALNUT up to 50 feet Slow-Moderate Good Moderate Moderate 2500- 7000 Small
Juglans major Arizona walnut is native to SW New Mexico. It grows up to 50 feet and has a wide spreading crown that averages 30 feet. It occurs in a variety of areas from the deserts to the mountains, but grows best near streams and in canyons. It produces large amounts of fruit every 2-3 years and is self-fertile. The walnuts are 1 to 1.5 inches in diameter with a husk and hard shell. It can live up to 400 years. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.0.
It is shade intolerant.
Pest Problems: none serious.
Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat.

ASPEN 60-80 feet Fast Excellent Moderate-High High 6500- 10000 Small
Populus tremuloides A native tree widely distributed above 7500 feet as a pioneer species after fire or other disturbances. Its bright fall colors light up the mountains where it is plentiful. Elk and deer browse the foliage when within reach. Fall colors are from bright yellow to gold and sometimes orange/red. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 4.3 to 9.0.
It is shade intolerant. The average crown width is 20 to 30 feet.
Pest Problems: poplar borer, leaf miner, cytospora cankers, and tent caterpillar.
Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, reforestation, and reclamation above 6500 feet.

AUSTRIAN PINE up to 60 feet Moderate-Fast Good Moderate Moderate 3500- 7500 Small
Pinus nigra This fast growing pine is native to Europe, but has proved to establish and grow well in the Southwest. It tolerates a variety of soils. It is an excellent choice for a windbreak planting. Many types of birds find cover in its branches and some use the seed for food. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5.
It is shade intolerant. The average width at maturity is 25 feet.
Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle, twig beetles, and pine tip moth.
Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, windbreaks, and sound screens.

BIG SAGEBRUSH 2-15 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate 2000- 6900 Small
Artemisia tridentata This native evergreen shrub is an important food source for deer, elk, pronghorn antelope, and bighorn sheep. It is also important to many bird species especially sage grouse. The average width is 3 to 6 feet. It is an important species for reclamation and revegetation due to its broad range and ease of establishment. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, moderate salinity tolerance, and it is shade intolerant.
Pest Problems: No serious pests.
Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and revegetation.

BIGTOOTH MAPLE 25-35 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 6500- 9400 Small
Acer grandidentatum This native species, often called Rocky Mountain Sugar Maple, can grow as tall as 50’ but generally doesn’t grow taller than 35’ in New Mexico. It has a width of between 15 to 30 feet. The 2” to 5” diameter leaves which have a pale green underside are noted for their striking brilliance in fall, when they change into beautiful shades of red, orange and yellow before dropping. The tree grows in rocky dry soils in the Trans- Pecos areas of New Mexico. It is an excellent specimen tree and can be used for site reclamation on disturbed soils. It has no calcium carbonate or salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.0-8.0.
Its shade tolerance is intermediate.
Pest Problems: None known to be serious.
Suggested Uses: Reclamation, erosion control

BLACK LOCUST Up to 40 Feet Moderate-Fast Good Low-Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000 Bare
Robinia pseudoacacia An introduced tree that is native to the eastern United States that does well on poor soils with supplemental irrigation. It is a valuable species for control of erosion in road cuts and abandoned fields. The white or pink showy flowers are in clusters 4" to 8" long. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 4.6 to 8.2.
It is shade intolerant. The crown width averages 30 feet.
Pest Problems: aphids and locust borer.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reclamation.

BLACK WILLOW up to 100 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 1500- 6000 Small
Salix nigra Black willow resembles Goodding's Black willow and the two species are sometimes considered to be varieties of the same species. It occurs along streambanks and in floodplain areas. It has massive trunks that usually lean and are often divided. The crown is broad and open. Birds eat the buds and flowering catkins and deer eat the twigs and leaves. It is also commonly used as nesting habitat by small bird species. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 8.0.
It is shade intolerant.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: erosion control of streambanks, wildlife plantings

BLUE SPRUCE up to 80 feet Slow Excellent High Low-Moderate 5000- 10000 Small
Picea pungens A native conifer that has a conical shape and will require supplemental water and generally requires some shade protection when young. It also has value to the wood products industry. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.8.
It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 20 to 30 feet.
Pest Problems: Douglas-fir tussock moth, needle scale, and spruce aphids.
Suggested Uses: reforestation, Christmas trees, and windbreaks.

BLUESTEM WILLOW up to 12 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 5200- 8500 Small
Salix irrorata This native shrub is widespread over New Mexico and occurs in thickets along rivers, creeks, and intermittent streams. It has twigs that are a striking purplish-blue color and white flowers. It has no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. The width averages 15 feet.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, streambank stabilization and wildlife plantings.

BRISTLECONE PINE up to 40 feet Slow Excellent Low Moderate 7500- 11500 Small
Pinus aristata This native pine grows in high elevation windy places and can live to be thousands of years old. Although it grows at high elevations it has been successfully planted at elevations as low as 6000 feet. Its branches are covered with dense needles and resemble a foxtail. The pine seeds are a source of food for birds and small mammals. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 7.5.
It is shade intolerant. The average width is 15 feet.
Pest Problems: white pine blister rust.
Suggested Uses: Reforestation, reclamation and windbreaks.

BUFFALOBERRY 12 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate High 4500- 7000 Bare
Shepherdia argentea This native species is found along the banks of streams or on eroded dry hillsides in northwestern New Mexico. The plant is highly important for mule deer browse and cover for nesting birds. It is a good late winter source of food for birds. The tart red fruit of this plant is used for jellies and jams. Buffaloberry needs both male and female plants to produce fruit. It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.3-8.0. The width is 10 to 12 feet.
Pest Problems: none serious.
Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, jellies and jams, windbreaks, and erosion control.

BUR OAK 70–80 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Moderate Moderate 0- 7500 Bare
​Quercus macrocarpa This majestic oak tree is very adaptable to various soils and tolerates alkaline soils as well. It produces a large burry acorn which is edible. The fruit matures in one year. It is drought tolerant and cold hardy; Has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The average crown width is 40 feet.
Optimum soil pH is 4.5 to 7.5.
Pest Problems: minor problems.
Suggested Uses: windbreak, wildlife plantings, and energy conservation plantings.

CHOKECHERRY 6-20 feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate-High Low 5500- 9500 Bare
Prunus virginiana A native shrub or small tree that forms dense barriers. It prefers deep and sandy loam soils. It is an important species for wildlife as bear, deer, and other animals use it for food. It is a species that minimizes stream bank erosion. Its fruit is widely used in jellies and jams. Chokecherry is self-pollinating. It has medium calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.2 to 8.4. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width is between 10 and 20 feet.
Pest Problems: borers, pear slugs, and tent caterpillar.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, riparian restoration, and wildlife plantings.

DESERT WILLOW 25 feet Fast Fair-Good Low High 3000- 6000 Small
Chilopsis linearis A native shrub or small tree found in washes and along roadsides. This species is tolerant of poor soils and considerable dro ught. This deciduous plant is classified as a phreatophyte, and is an indicator that water is not too far below the surface during part of the year. The wood is often used for fence posts. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 10.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width averages 20 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, screens, and wildlife plantings.

DOUGLAS-FIR 80+ feet Moderate Excellent High Moderate 4500- 10000 Small
Pseudotsuga menziesii A large, native tree with a dense, conical crown. The wood is one of the strongest of the soft woods. It has significant value to the wood products industry and is used extensively as a Christmas tree. This species can live for hundreds of years. It has moderate calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 20 and 30 feet.
Pest Problems: Douglas-fir tussock moth, spruce budworm, and wooly aphids.
Suggested Uses: reforestation (important timber species in western US), wildlife plantings.

EASTERN REDCEDAR up to 40 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000 Small
Juniperus virginiana Native to the eastern and plains states, it forms a dense, pyramidal crown. It grows across a wide variety of soils, including those with a high water table. It is used extensively in windbreaks and in living snow fence plantings. This tree is best known for its fruit. Cones are eaten by many birds and mammals including Mourning dove, robins, turkey, squirrels, and raccoons and many other types of wildlife. It is a rugged tree and a good survivor. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 4.7 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 10 and 20 feet.
Pest Problems: spider mites and western cedar borer.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, living snow fences, and energy conservation plantings.

ENGELMANN SPRUCE up to 120 feet Slow Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 11500 Small
Picea engelmannii This native spruce is long-lived, and strongly resembles blue spruce. It grows on drier sites than blue spruce and has moderate watering needs. It is conical in form and has a narrow spirelike crown. Small birds and mammals use the seed as a food source. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It is shade tolerant. The crown width averages 30 feet.
Pest Problems: western spruce budworm and spruce beetle.
Suggested Uses: reforestation and windbreaks.

FALSE INDIGO BUSH 6-10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000 Small
Amorpha fruticosa False indigo bush is a native shrub that grows in dense stands along streambanks, irrigation ditches, irrigated pastures, and the edges of woodlands. It has purple spire-like flowers that bloom from May to July. The nectar from the flowers attracts birds and butterflies. The leaves are pinnately compound with 11 to 15 leaflets per stem. The average width of the plant is 5 feet. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant.
Pest Problems: insect gall.
Suggested Uses: erosion control and wildlife plantings.

FERNBUSH 6-8 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 3000- 7000 Small
Chamaebatiaria millefolium This shrub has fragrant fern-like leaves. It produces an array of white flowers in the spring. The plant remains an evergreen in warm climates and becomes deciduous in colder climates. It is also very drought tolerant once established. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is 5 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.

FOUR-WING SALTBUSH 4-6 feet Fast Good Low High 3000- 8000 Small
Atriplex canescens This native shrub grows across a wide variety of soils including saline soils and is highly prized plant by the Navajos as forage for their cattle, sheep, and goats; especially in early spring when other forage is scarce. It is also an excellent wildlife species. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 9.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 8 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, erosion control, and reclamation of severely disturbed sites.

GAMBEL OAK up to 30 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 8500 Small
Quercus gambelii A native tree or large shrub recognized by the deeply lobed leaves, which are larger than those of other Southwestern oaks. This is the only common tree oak in northern New Mexico. It is considered as good browse for deer and other wildlife. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 12 and 20 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: reclamation, wood products, erosion control, and wildlife plantings.

GOODDING'S BLACK WILLOW 45-80 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 3500- 7500 Small
Salix gooddingii This relatively abundant tree is found throughout New Mexico and is found along arroyos, streams, and rivers. Black Willow se rves to minimize erosion and lessen flood damage. This species tolerates a wide range of soils as long as moisture is present. Native Americans chewed willow branches as a pain killer. Birds feed on the buds and flowers and deer eat the twigs and leaves. The tree gets its name from the dark colored bark. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is up to 40 feet.
Pest Problems: none serious.
Suggested Uses: streambank stabilization and riparian restoration.

GREEN ASH 60 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 7000 Bare
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green ash grows to be a moderately large tree. It is often used as an ornamental because of its stately appearance. It is used quite extensively in windbreaks. It is a fast growing tree which produces fruit for many types of birds as well as browse for deer. This species is resistant to diseases which kill other cultivated ashes. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 4.7 to 8.1. It is shade tolerant. The average crown width is 25 feet.
Pest Problems: ash borer.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reclamation, erosion control and wildlife plantings.

HACKBERRY 40-60 Feet Slow-Moderate Good Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 7000 Bare
Celtis occidentalis A hardy, drought tolerant tree adapted to the hot, dry climate of New Mexico and thought to be native to northeastern New Mexico. This spreading tree produces fruit that is popular with birds. It also produces sweet nectar that attracts many species of butterflies. This tree can be used in windbreaks and wildlife plantings. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.8. It is shade tolerant. The crown width is 40 feet.
Pest Problems: leaf gall psylids and nipple gall.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.

HOPTREE up to 25 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4000- 9000 Small
Ptelea trifoliata This native tree also known as wafer ash reaches up to 25 feet with a crown spread of 10 to 15 feet. The leaves are trifoliate and are four to six inches in length and turn yellow in the fall. Their flowers are inconspicuous greenish-white and have an orange blossom-like perfume. Its fruit attracts bird, squirrels and other mammals. Grows on dry, rocky slopes to valley bottoms. It has medium salinity tolerance, medium calcium carbonate tolerance, and intermediate shade tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0.
Pest Problems: none serious
Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, windbreaks

HYBRID COTTONWOOD 70 Feet Fast Good High Moderate 3000- 7000 BarePopulus deltoides x A fast growing tree, developing a narrow pyramidal crown, which becomes broad and open. Male variety does not produce cotton. Also called Noreaster cottonwood. The width is 35 feet.
The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5.
Pest Problems: leaf miner, fall webworm, and poplar borers.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and erosion control.

LACEBARK ELM 50 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000 Small
Ulmus parvifolia Lacebark Elm, or true Chinese Elm, should not be confused for the notoriously spreading Siberian Elm. Siberian Elm is often a nd mistakenly called Chinese Elm. Lacebark Elm is a medium sized tree with a round to oval crown. It is a gentleman as it doesn't spread like the Siberian Elm. It is an excellent drought tolerant species for use in windbreaks. It can grow as much as 3 feet per year. It is adaptable to most soil conditions. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet.
Pest Problems: none serious. Resistant to elm leaf beetle and Dutch elm disease.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and firewood.

LILAC Up to 12 Feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000 BareSyringa vulgaris This violet fragrant flowered shrub grows across a wide variety of soils. Due to its growth habit, it is suitable in single or multi-row windbreaks and has high quality cover for wildlife. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, low salinity tolerance, and has intermediate shade tolerance.
The optimum soil ph is 5.8 to 7.8.The width is between 6 and 12 feet.
Pest Problems: minor problems with lilac borer, and leaf miners.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.LIMBER PINE up to 60 feet Slow Excellent Low Low 7500- 12000 Small
Pinus flexilis This native 5-needled pine is very long-lived. It is pyramidal in shape during youth, becoming more flat-topped at maturity. The crown width is between 15 and 30 feet. The pine seeds are an excellent source of food for birds and small mammals. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 6.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance.
Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, dwarf mistletoe and White Pine blister rust.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reforestation.

LITTLE LEAF SUMAC 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate-High 4000- 8000 Small
Rhus microphyllum A native shrub of the desert washes and valleys of southern New Mexico that has clusters of orange-red berries that provide winter food for many birds and mammals. The leaves turn an orange-red in the fall. Basket weaving was a common use of sumac branches by Native Americans. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 10 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: erosion control, windbreaks, and slope stabilization.

MOUNTAIN SNOWBERRY 2-5 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate-High Moderate 6000- 10000 Small
Symphoricarpos oreophilus Mountain snowberry has smooth twigs that turn brown and shreddy with age. The leaves are light gray green. It has pink flower and white berries. This native shrub is drought and fire tolerant. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.2 to 7.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width averages 4 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and slope stabilization.

NANKING CHERRY 8-10 Feet Fast Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000 BarePrunus tomentosa Nanking Cherry is a large wide spreading shrub with rose-type leaves and beautiful showy white flowers in the spring. It can be pruned into a small tree. The fruit is edible for humans and is also relished by birds. Nanking cherry requires cross-pollination to produce fruit. The plant works well as a mass planting or informal hedge. It is very cold hardy. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 7.2. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 8 feet.
Pest Problems: Tent caterpillars, black rot and pear slug.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.

NARROWLEAF COTTONWOOD up to 70 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate-High Moderate 5000- 10000 SmallPopulus angustifolia This is a native tree with willow-like leaves, common along streams in the mountains of New Mexico. It represents the principal mountain Cottonwood species. It provides cover for wildlife and is a good browse species. It has high tolerance for calcium carbonate and low tolerance for salinity.
The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet.
Pest Problems: Leaf rust, fall webworm, poplar borers
Suggested Uses: Windbreaks, Wildlife plantings, erosion control and riparian restoration

NATIVE PLUM 6-8 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low 4500- 8000 Bare
Prunus americana This is a small native tree adapted to a wide range of soils and requires supplemental watering on dry sites until established. It produces very fragrant clusters of showy white flowers in the spring and produces a sweet edible fruit. It needs cross-pollination to produce a good fruit crop. It is cold hardy and drought tolerant once established. It is an excellent choice for wildlife plantings. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0.
It is shade intolerant. The crown with is between 10 and 15 feet.
Pest Problems: pear slug, aphids, and powdery mildew.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.

NEW MEXICO ELDERBERRY up to 25 feet Moderate-Fast Good Low Low-Moderate 6500- 9500 Small
Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea This is a small native tree that is common in the central and southern parts of New Mexico. The leaves are pinnately compound and opposite. It has white flowers and produces purple-black berries that can be used for jellies, pies, wine-making, etc. It provides cover, nesting sites, and food for many bird species. It is also used as browse by mule deer. It is highly drought tolerant, has medium calcium carbonate tolerance, and no salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width is up to 20 feet.
The optimum soil pH is 4.9 to 7.5.
Pest Problems:
Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, erosion control

NEW MEXICO FORESTIERA 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 4000- 7500 Bare, Small
Forestiera neomexicana Also called NM Olive or Privet, this native shrub has a broad range in New Mexico. It is widely used by birds. It forms a dense thicket or small tree and is excellent for controlling erosion. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 8 and 12 feet.
Pest Problems: no serious pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.

NEW MEXICO LOCUST 15-25 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 8500 Small
Robinia neomexicana This is a native tree especially useful for erosion control due to its rapid growth and thicket forming tendencies. The legumes incorporate nitrogen into the soil improving the quality of the soil. It produces showy purple flowers in the spring. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5.
It is shade intolerant. The average crown width is 15 feet.
Pest Problems: minor problem with locust borer.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reclamation, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.

PIÑON up to 40 feet Slow Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 8500 Small
Pinus edulis The New Mexico state tree is an aromatic pine which grows across a wide variety of soils and does well under cultivation. It is popular for the edible nuts it produces. Under most conditions it is self-pollinating. It has high value for upland game and song birds. It is very drought tolerant, but slow growing. Has low calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.5. The crown width is between 20 and 30 feet.
Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle, piñon needle scale, needle miner, twig beetle, and pitch moth.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation.

PLAINS COTTONWOOD up to 85 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 3500- 9000 Small
Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera This cottonwood is native to the eastern plains of New Mexico and is found in moist areas and near streambanks. It is also highly drought tolerant. It is appropriate for planting east of the Pecos River. Rio Grande Cottonwood should be planted west of the Pecos River. The crown spread is 50-60 feet and the leaves are wide and triangular in shape, 3-6 inches long. They turn golden yellow in the fall. It has medium tolerance for calcium carbonate and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0.
It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, and wildlife plantings.

PONDEROSA PINE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 9000 Small
Pinus ponderosa This is a large, native conifer. It is the primary commercial tree species in New Mexico. It has a pyramidal shape when young and becomes conical with age. Squirrels clip the cones and store them in caches and extract the seeds for winter consumption. The tree grows best on well-drained soils. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 25 and 30 feet.
Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, sawflies and dwarf mistletoe.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reforestation.

PRAIRIE SKY POPLAR 50-80 feet Fast Excellent High Moderate 4000- 8000 Bare
Populus x. canadensis This is a tall, narrow crowned tree with a crown spread of 8 to 10 feet with deep green foliage that is an alternative to Lombardy poplar. It has a lifespan of 40+ years and is suggested for use in windbreaks. It has a very fast growth rate that can be up to 4 feet per year.
It is disease resistant and has yellow fall color.
The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5.
Pest Problems:
Suggested Uses: windbreaks.

REDOSIER DOGWOOD 6-9 feet Moderate Good High Moderate 5500- 9000 SmallCornus stolonifera Redosier prefers moist sites along streams and around swampy or boggy land. This native species is readily noticed due to its red twigs and white berries in the fall. The flowers grow in clusters and are tiny and white. It has no calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.5.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 8 and 10 feet.
Pest Problems: No major pests
Suggested Uses: Riparian or wetland plantings.

RIO GRANDE COTTONWOOD 60+ feet Fast Good High Low-Moderate 2500- 7500 Small
Populus deltoides ssp. Wislizeni One of New Mexico's most beloved trees, this cottonwood grows chiefly along the lower valleys and along slower waters. It is an excellent species for stabilizing streams. Birds also use it for nesting purposes. Beavers use it for dams. The leaves turn a golden yellow just before the leaves fall. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0.
It is shade intolerant. The average crown width is 40 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, and wildlife plantings.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER up to 40 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 9000 Small
Juniperus scopulorum This is a hardy native tree that grows across a wide variety of soils. It is the fastest growing of southwestern junipers and can be found along mountain streams and dry, rocky slopes. The pea size blue-berries are an important source of food for birds and small mammals. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.5.
It is shade intolerant. It has a crown width of between 10 and 20 feet.
Pest Problems: juniper bark beetle, spider mites, western cedar borer, and juniper mistletoe.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation, and erosion control.

RUBBER RABBITBRUSH (CHAMISA) 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Low 3000- 7500 Small
Chrysothamnus nauseosus This is a native shrub which grows well in disturbed sites and in alkaline soils. In the fall Chamisa becomes very conspicuous. Its yellow flower clusters brighten up the roadside and other disturbed areas. The foliage and seeds are eaten by browsing animals and rabbits. It has medium calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.6 to 8.6.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 2 and 4 feet.
Pest Problems: Leaf beetle, no other major pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control and reclamation.

SCOTS PINE (SCOTCH PINE) up to 50 feet Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7500 SmallPinus sylvestris A native of Europe, the irregular pyramidal crown develops into a broad crown with age. The crown width is between 20 and 35 feet. It is considered a good tree for reclamation because it often seeds itself into the site. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum pH is 5.0 to 7.5.
It is shade intolerant.
Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle and pine needle scale.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and energy conservation plantings.

SERVICEBERRY 6 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 5000- 9000 Bare
Amelanchier alnifolia This native species is a medium to tall deciduous shrub. The stems are maroon in color and it produces showy white flowers in the spring. Fall colors are yellow and orange/red. The fruit is purple-black when ripe, edible and very tasty. Serviceberry is self-pollinating. It is an excellent wildlife species. It inhabits banks, slopes, and mountains in mesic areas. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 8.4. The width is 15 feet.
Pest Problems: None known to be serious.
Suggested Uses: Erosion control and wildlife plantings

SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL up to 4 feet Slow Good-Excellent Low Moderate 6500- 11500 Small
Potentilla fruticosa Native drought tolerant shrub that has small yellow 5-petalled blossoms that are present from June through September It is attractive to butterflies and is also forage for mule deer. This shrub is also known by the name Potentilla. The bark is brown and shreddy in color. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.0.
It has intermediate shade tolerance, but prefers full sun. The width is between 2 and 4 feet.
Pest Problems: none serious.
Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and windbreaks.

SKUNKBUSH SUMAC 4-6 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate-High 4500- 8000 Small, Bare
Rhus trilobata Skunkbush sumac is a deciduous, multi-branched and spreading shrub. It occurs along stream banks and forest openings but is most common and abundant on dry, rocky slopes throughout Arizona and New Mexico at elevations from 3500 to 8000 feet. This shrub is very winter hardy and tolerant of drought and high alkali soils. The fruits are red-orange and the flowers are yellowish and conspicuously in clusters. Besides having brilliant orange-red fall colors it is an important fall and winter food for songbirds and emergency food for game birds. This species is also an important browse species for mule deer. Clusters of small yellow flowers bloom in late May and produce a small red edible fruit. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.2.
It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 6 and 8 feet.
Pest Problems: no serious pests.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.

SMOOTH SUMAC 10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000 Small
Rhus glabra This native shrub is extremely drought resistant and the leaves turn a bright red in the fall. More than thirty bird species and deer use the fruit as winter food. It serves as good ground cover for small mammals. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.3 to 7.5.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 10 and 15 feet.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: reclamation, erosion control and wildlife plantings.

SOUTHWESTERN WHITE PINE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low 4500- 10000 Small
Pinus strobiformis A large native tree, that grows well in a forest environment. It has edible seeds, similar though smaller than those of piñon. It is very graceful and the needles are soft and wispy. Its blue-green foliage makes it a formal-looking tree when young. The width is between 20 and 30 feet.
The optimum soil pH is 4.5 to 6.8.
NOT RECOMMENED FOR SOUTHEAST NEW MEXICO (CAPITANS, SACRAMENTO AND WHITE MOUNTAINS) DUE TO WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST.
Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, dwarf mistletoe and White Pine blister rust.
Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reforestation.

THINLEAF ALDER 20-25 feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate-High Low-Moderate 5000- 10000 Small
Alnus tenuifolia This native species is common along creeks and canyons from 5000' to 10000' in elevations. Alder bark is rich in tannin and very puckery if chewed. The bark is used for tanning, giving skins a red color. Beavers, deer and rabbits eat the bark despite its puckery taste. It is good cover for wildlife and browse for deer. It has no calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.0.
It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 12 and 20 feet.
Pest Problems: Tent caterpillars.
Suggested Uses: Wildlife plantings, streambank stabilization and erosion control.

WAX CURRANT 4-6 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellen tLow Moderate 5000- 13000 Bare
Ribes cereum This attractive fragrant native shrub produces pink flowers in the spring and red fruit in the late summer. This plant is abundant over rocky slopes and in dry and open woods. It does well in areas of limited precipitation. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.5-7.5.
It is shade intolerant. The width is between 3 and 5 feet.
Pest Problems: None serious.
Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and erosion control

WHITE FIR up to 80 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Moderate-High Low 5000- 10000 Small
Abies concolor This native conifer has a conical shape which becomes irregular with age. It is also a notable commercial species for the wood products industry in New Mexico. The needles are silvery blue and cones are olive-green to purple. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.8.
It is shade tolerant. The width is between 15 and 30 feet.
Pest Problems: spruce budworm, Douglas-fir tussock moth, bark beetles, aphids and dwarf mistletoe.
Suggested Uses: reforestation.

WINTERFAT 3–4 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000 Small
Ceratoides lanata Winterfat is a hardy, native half-shrub with a wide range throughout New Mexico. It grows on dry, well-drained soils, 3000 - 8000 feet in elevation, and can tolerate saline or alkaline soils. It is superior winter forage for livestock and used extensively by wildlife. The seed heads in the fall give the plant a pleasing silvery appearance. The long white fuzzy plumes give it another name: "Lambs Tail". It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance.
The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 8.5.
It is shade intolerant. The average width is 3 feet.
Pest Problems: no major pests.
Suggested Uses: erosion control, range improvement, and wildlife plantings.

WOODS ROSE 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 9000 Bare
Rosa woodsii This hardy shrub produces showy pink flowers in the spring. It is excellent cover for grouse and other fowl. Big game animals readily graze them when present in winter range. It is a good soil stabilizer. It has low calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance.
Optimum soil pH is 5.0-8.0.
Its shade tolerance is intermediate. The width is between 3 and 4 feet.
Pest Problems: leaf cutter bees.
​Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and windbreaks.